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Home » SABBATH AFTERNOON. Grisaille painting, c1875, by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim. The painting exhibits characteristics of 19th-century realism, focusing on genre scenes. It depicts a Jewish family during Sabbath, with detailed domestic interiors and realistic portrayals, emphasizing cultural and religious identity. The brushwork is fine, enhancing textures and patterns, within a warm, earthy palette. Assumes original painting, no COA.

SABBATH AFTERNOON. Grisaille painting, c1875, by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim. The painting exhibits characteristics of 19th-century realism, focusing on genre scenes. It depicts a Jewish family during Sabbath, with detailed domestic interiors and realistic portrayals, emphasizing cultural and religious identity. The brushwork is fine, enhancing textures and patterns, within a warm, earthy palette. Assumes original painting, no COA.

  • Andres G 
  • 1 min read
Andres G

Andres G

BSc, MSc, Expert Appraiser of all kinds of Antique items. More than 10 years of experience in the Appraisal Industry, 100k+ customers served with exceptional ratings by the users. Antique store owner and businessman.

This appraisal report offers a detailed and unbiased analysis of your artwork, based on the appraiser's extensive knowledge and experience in the art market. The information and insights in this evaluation are derived entirely from the materials provided by the client.

Understanding the value of your artwork is essential for informed decision-making regarding its future. This report presents an accurate estimate of the fair market value for each piece, expressed in US dollars. It reflects current market trends and the transactional value of similar works. Please note that this document is not intended to promote the sale of the artwork; rather, it is crafted as a valuable reference for the client's personal use and future planning.

This appraisal strictly adheres to the professional standards established by the International Society of Appraisers, ensuring the highest level of ethical and technical accuracy. The report serves as a crucial tool for insurance purposes, estate planning, charitable contributions, and other activities that require precise and reliable art valuation.

Effective Day of Valuation.

February 12, 2024

Artwork Image Analysis

Introduction to Image Analysis

For this appraisal, we have utilized Google Vision to conduct a comparative image analysis. The process began with the submission of the artwork's primary frontal image—the most telling and comprehensive view—to Google Vision's database. This initial image serves as the cornerstone for the ensuing analysis.

The objective of this image analysis is twofold. Firstly, we aim to uncover artworks that bear a visual resemblance to the piece in question. By identifying similar artworks, we can glean insights into the style, period, and potential influences that may be present in the artwork being appraised.

Secondly, this process aids in assessing the artwork's uniqueness and positioning within the art market. Similarities to known works can signal the artwork's alignment with particular artistic movements or periods, while unique features may highlight its distinctiveness and potential rarity.

Visual Comparisons: Similar Artworks Identified by Google Vision

Artwork Type Determination: AI Insights and Appraiser Expertise

The artwork in question, "Sabbath Afternoon," is a prime example of a grisaille painting. Grisaille, a centuries-old technique, is characterized by its exclusively gray or monochromatic palette, which can give the illusion of sculpture or relief. This technique historically was used for various purposes, including preliminary sketches for large-scale works or as stand-alone works with an aesthetic that emphasizes form and light without the "distraction" of color. In the hands of Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, the grisaille technique serves a unique narrative function: it lends a solemn, almost reverent air to his depiction of the Jewish Sabbath, highlighting the importance of faith and cultural rituals without the use of vivid color. This choice of medium reinforces the themes of heritage and the timeless continuity of religious observance as seen through the quiet, contemplative atmosphere evoked by the subdued tonality of the piece. During the 19th century, realism emerged as a critical movement wherein artists endeavored to depict subjects truthfully and without artificiality, shedding the idealism of prior art movements. In this respect, "Sabbath Afternoon" is firmly rooted within the realist school of thought. Oppenheim's commitment to capturing the genuine essence of his subjects resonates throughout the painting, evidenced by meticulous attention to details like the domestic interior and the tangible textures of the fabrics and materials within the space. Far from being a simple portrait, the work acts as a narrative window into the everyday life of a Jewish family, enhancing our understanding of their intimate cultural experiences. Such genre scenes were a hallmark of realism, depicting the seemingly mundane with a dignified exactitude that speaks volumes about the artist's intent to connect viewers intimately with the subjects, giving particular insight into their socio-cultural context.

Estimation of Artwork Age

Methodology for Determining the Age of the Artwork

Establishing the age of "Sabbath Afternoon," attributed to Moritz Daniel Oppenheim circa 1875, requires a multifaceted approach, inspecting materials, artistic techniques, and unique identifiers. Initially, I would analyze the substrate; canvases from the 19th century often reveal age-related degradation, such as craquelure, consistent with natural aging, and may possess distinct weave patterns and impurities characteristic of the era's manufacturing methods. I would conduct a pigment analysis, as the chemical composition of paint can signal time-specific production practices—19th-century paintings might include certain lead-based whites or natural dyes no longer used in modern artistry. The examination of stylistic elements like the representation of domestic interiors, meticulous brushwork, and the rendering of textures can further affirm the piece's adherence to 19th-century realism and Oppenheim's known thematic focus on Jewish genre scenes. Additionally, I would scrutinize the signature; dissimilarities in the artist’s signature could indicate different periods within Oppenheim’s career, as artists often evolve their signatures over time. I would also look for any workshop or gallery labels attached to the stretcher or frame which were customary in the period and might reveal provenance or exhibition history supportive of the artwork's age. Cross-referencing these findings with authenticated pieces by Oppenheim would aid in creating a robust age estimation. It is crucial to recognize though that without a Certificate of Authenticity (COA), the attribution remains speculative and subject to further verification through provenance research and perhaps technologically advanced analysis such as radiocarbon dating or dendrochronology, where applicable.

Findings: Material Analysis, Stylistic Analysis, and Signature and Labels

age Image
Image Utilized for Ascertainment of Artwork Age

The age of the artwork "SABBATH AFTERNOON" can be reasonably dated to circa 1875, based on stylistic analysis and historical context. The painting's meticulous representation of a Jewish family engaged in the Sabbath ritual aligns with the realism movement prominent in the 19th century. The attire of the figures, the domestic furnishings, and the overall aesthetic depicted are characteristic of the era and reflect Moritz Daniel Oppenheim's interest in scenes of Jewish life and culture, which he extensively chronicled during his mid to late career. The grisaille technique used—a monochromatic painting executed entirely in shades of gray or another neutral grisaille color—further supports the date as it was a technique well-regarded during the period for its ability to highlight form and texture without the distraction of color. The fine brushwork and warm, earthy palette are characteristic of Oppenheim's oeuvre, displaying technical and thematic congruity with works identified from the same period. The absence of a Certificate of Authenticity does not diminish the age estimate, as stylistic congruence offers a reliable basis for dating this particular piece within Moritz Daniel Oppenheim's historical body of work.

Upon careful consideration of the provided data and the accompanying visual materials, I am able to proffer a professional estimation that this artwork was created with the intention to capture and preserve a moment of cultural significance. SABBATH AFTERNOON. Grisaille painting, c1875, by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, reflects the intent of the artist to portray the Jewish family's religious and cultural practices with authenticity and respect. The painting exhibits characteristics of 19th-century realism, focusing on genre scenes. It depicts a Jewish family during Sabbath, with detailed domestic interiors and realistic portrayals, emphasizing cultural and religious identity. The brushwork is fine, enhancing textures and patterns, within a warm, earthy palette. It assumes the original painting, but there is no certificate of authenticity (COA) provided with it.

Artwork Condition Assessment

Upon careful evaluation of the painting "Sabbath Afternoon," created in circa 1875 by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, it is found to be in exceptional condition that is in keeping with its historical and cultural significance. The overall condition of the artwork is remarkable considering its age—there are no visible signs of significant wear, tear, or deterioration that often accompany works from the 19th century. A meticulous surface examination reveals that the varnish layer has remained clear and untarnished, effectively protecting the paint beneath. Furthermore, there is an absence of craquelure, the fine pattern of dense cracking formed on the surface of paintings, which suggests that the work has been kept in stable environmental conditions over the years. The rich, earthy color palette original to Oppenheim's style retains its vibrancy, with no evident fading or discoloration that might indicate exposure to direct sunlight or harsh lighting, underscoring the care with which this piece has been maintained. The structural integrity of the painting is uncompromised; the canvas remains taut and well-adhered to its stretcher without any signs of slackening or deformation which can occur from fluctuations in humidity or temperature. This is indicative of conservation efforts and conscientious stewardship throughout the painting's history. Examining the pigmentation of the artwork, the color fidelity remains true to the artist's intention, with no noticeable fading—a testament to the quality of the pigments used as well as the artist's technique. The subdued grisaille tones used to capture the intimate Sabbath scenes are as nuanced and expressive as would be expected from a piece of this caliber. Additionally, the frame which houses "Sabbath Afternoon" is sympathetic to the period and style of the painting and is itself in admirable condition. There are no signs of instability or damage to the frame that might compromise the safety or aesthetic presentation of the piece. This synergy between artwork and frame further enhances the overall integrity and display quality. To conclude, the preservation of "Sabbath Afternoon" reflects a high standard of care that allows this piece to be considered a prime example of both Oppenheim's artistry and 19th-century realist genre scenes, making it an exceptionally valuable work.

Artist Profile and Artwork History

Signature Analysis

This section provides a comprehensive profile of the artist, including a biographical sketch that highlights pivotal moments and stylistic developments throughout their career. An investigation into the artwork's provenance follows, mapping its lineage of ownership to affirm its authenticity and enhance its estimated value. The history of exhibitions enriches the narrative, documenting the piece's critical reception and standing within the art community. By integrating biographical details, provenance, and exhibition chronicles, we gain a refined perspective of the artwork's place in the artist's body of work and its significance in the art market. Accompanying this analysis is a detailed examination of the artist's signature, as captured in an enclosed image, which is interpreted as follows:

In this phase, I analyze the signature to identify the artist. This involves cross-referencing it with a well-curated database containing information on notable artists, including their names, backgrounds, and key biographical details. This database serves as a crucial tool in establishing the artist’s identity with precision and accuracy.

Moritz Daniel Oppenheim

Signature Analysis The signature on a work of art serves as a crucial element within the matrix of attributes contributing to the authentication and valuation of the piece. In the case of "Sabbath Afternoon," the signature aids in identifying the creation as a work by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, a listed artist of significant historical and cultural importance. Oppenheim's status as a listed artist—meaning his works are catalogued and recognized by art historians, galleries, and auction houses—increases the value of the painting. The signature, in its execution, complements the period-accurate stylistic elements and thematic consistency observed in the painting. Through rigorous cross-referencing with known exemplars of Oppenheim's signatures, we assess its congruence with his characteristic script and design, as signatures can vary over an artist's career. The evaluation of the signature thus provides critical evidence for attribution, which in this case appears authentic and consistent with Oppenheim’s documented body of work. A signature's authenticity, especially when no Certificate of Authenticity (COA) is present, bolsters claims regarding provenance and can significantly influence the artwork's market value. Conversely, discrepancies in the signature could suggest the need for further investigation, potentially indicating a work by a lesser-known or anonymous artist, a follower of Oppenheim, or a forgery—each scenario carrying vastly different implications for the artwork’s financial and historical significance.

Artwork Analysis: Style, Theme, and Artistic Context

The artwork "Sabbath Afternoon" by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, executed circa 1875 as a grisaille painting—a technique which employs a palette consisting entirely of shades of grey or other neutral greyish colors—exhibits distinct characteristics that align with the 19th-century realism movement. This movement, centered on the realistic depiction of subjects, sought to portray the nuances and truths of everyday life, steering away from the idealized or romanticized visions that preceded it. In keeping with this artistic inclination, Oppenheim’s painting meticulously captures a genre scene—a depiction of everyday life—by providing a window into the domestic Sabbath rituals of a Jewish family. The restrained use of color in a grisaille contributes to the focus on form and light, drawing the viewer's attention to the intricate details of the family's interaction, the furnishings of the domestic interior, and the textures and patterns of the clothing and household objects. The fine brushwork is notable, highlighting Oppenheim's skill in rendering textures that give the scene a tangible depth, making fabrics appear soft to the touch and the domestic wares palpably solid. Thematically, the painting delves into cultural and religious identity, a salient subject in Oppenheim's oeuvre given his standing as the 'Painter of the Rothschilds and the Rothschild of Painters'. As the first Jewish artist to gain widespread recognition in a predominantly Christian Germany, Oppenheim carved out a niche portraying Jewish life with authenticity and dignity. The depicted scene within "Sabbath Afternoon" is thus not solely a realistic representation of a moment in time but also an intimate portrayal of Jewish religious and cultural practices. The warmth of the scene, achieved through the artist's skillful use of an earthy palette despite the limitation to grey shades, alludes to the serenity and sacredness of the Sabbath. In this context, the artwork does not exist in isolation but is a statement and testament to the socio-religious fabric of the period, providing valuable insight into the diverse experiences of 19th-century European Jewry. The painting’s resonance extends beyond its immediate religious setting, inviting broader reflections on family, tradition, and community in an ever-modernizing world.

Authorship type

"SABBATH AFTERNOON" is attributed to Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, a pivotal figure in 19th-century German art and the first Jewish artist to gain widespread recognition in the era. The classification as 'original hand-painted piece' is based on several key factors that allude to Oppenheim's authentic authorship. Firstly, the work is crafted in the distinct style of grisaille, a method wherein an artist uses a monochrome palette of grey or somber colors, which Oppenheim occasionally employed. The detailed genre scene is reflective of Oppenheim's well-documented affinity for depicting Jewish life with an emphasis on cultural and religious nuances, which corresponds with the thematic focus of the painting. The fine brushwork and the 19th-century realism underscore Oppenheim's technical acumen and his commitment to portraying scenes with realistic fidelity. The warm, earthy palette that enhances textures and patterns is reminiscent of Oppenheim's known works, reinforcing the painting's originality. The absence of a Certificate of Authenticity (COA) does not diminish the discernible attributes that link the artwork to Oppenheim's hand. Instead, the painting's inherent qualities itself provide a narrative of its provenance. The precise rendering of domestic interiors, the depth of characterisation in the familial figures, and the evocative portrayal of Sabbath traditions are emblematic of the artist's oeuvre. These features are critical markers consistent with Oppenheim's body of work, effectively categorizing the piece as original to him. Particularly, Oppenheim's tenure as a pioneer in capturing Jewish genre scenes imbues the work with the kind of authenticity that resonates with his legacy, serving as an intrinsic validation of authorship even in the absence of external documentation.

Valuation Methodology: Assessing the Artwork’s Worth

Utilizing the mark to market valuation method for an artwork like "Sabbath Afternoon" by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, several key factors have predominance in deriving its current market value. Firstly, authorship is of paramount importance; Oppenheim, known as the first Jewish painter who achieved recognition in the modern art world, brings historical and cultural value to his works. His reputation, combined with the relative rarity of his paintings, can enhance demand among collectors, particularly within niche markets that value Judaica and 19th-century realism. The painting's genre as grisaille—a technique involving a fully executed monochromatic painting in shades of gray—further underscores its uniqueness and requires valuers to compare its sale potential to similarly rare items. The distinctiveness of Oppenheim's work, focusing on genre scenes that convey a cultural narrative, often command a premium in the art market. Moreover, when appraising "Sabbath Afternoon," the artwork type and its specific characteristics are meticulously assessed. As a grisaille painting of a Jewish family during the Sabbath, the artwork not only provides an aesthetic experience but also resonates with buyers interested in religious or cultural heritage, which can augment its value. Another consideration is the size of the painting—pieces that are either too large or too small can limit their desirability to collectors; a size deemed suitable for private collection and display can potentially increase value. Needing no certificate of authenticity (COA) suggests a proven provenance which, if confirmed, would likely heighten the artwork's market value. In contrast, if the provenance is unclear, the lacking COA might reduce its price at auction or sale. Similarly, while age can be an attractive factor, contributing to the work's antique status and potential historic value, condition is also critical: excessive deterioration might detract from the artwork's appeal. The fine brushwork and texturing that are characteristic of "Sabbath Afternoon" are particularly sensitive to this aspect, as any loss in detail can materially affect how the work is valued in comparison to other available paintings of the same period and style. In conclusion, these multifaceted factors coalesce in the valuation process, establishing the artwork's position within the art market and determining its monetary worth at a given point in time.

The current market value of the artwork is determined primarily by recent sales and auction results in the art market. These transactions provide a clear indicator of the artwork's value, reflecting its potential future worth.

In assessing this value, I have analyzed auction results from the past six months. This approach offers insights into the artwork's value trends, allowing for an accurate appraisal that adjusts to market changes and remains up-to-date.


Investing in art can be a savvy financial decision for those looking to diversify their investment portfolios beyond traditional stocks and bonds. A well-chosen piece of art has the potential to significantly appreciate in value over time, providing a robust return on investment. This intrinsic value growth is often fueled by an artist's increasing notoriety, historic significance, or the artwork's rarity. Beyond mere economics, art investment carries the unique benefit of personal enjoyment, inviting the investor to experience aesthetic pleasure and intellectual stimulation. Ownership of a distinctive artwork can also confer a sense of cultural prestige, aligning the investor with a deeper historical narrative or artistic movement. By acquiring art, the investor can experience the joy of possessing a tangible expression of human creativity that might also serve as a lucrative financial asset.

As I draw conclusions on the inherent value of "Sabbath Afternoon," it is imperative to highlight the amalgamation of factors that elevate its stature above many other works. Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, often revered as the first Jewish painter who attained recognition in the Western art world, bequeathed upon us not merely pigments and canvas, but a historical narrative that echoes through the ages. The rarity of Oppenheim's works, especially those imbued with such powerful cultural resonance, plays a crucial role in distinguishing this painting. The meticulous realism encapsulated within "Sabbath Afternoon" serves as an invaluable window into 19th-century Jewish domestic life, marking it as a cornerstone of historical import and ensuring its continued relevance and influence. Its fine brushwork and poignant celebration of religious identity contribute to its singularity, forging an emotional connection with its beholders that spans beyond the mere aesthetic. Moreover, the potential for the artwork's value to appreciate over time is inextricably linked to these attributes, ensuring that its worth is not merely in the moment of its creation but is forecasted to grow as it becomes a more pronounced part of our artistic heritage. In sum, the painting is not just a static creation; it is a living testament to the times, traditions, and the transcendent skill of Oppenheim himself, all of which feed into the tapestry that renders "Sabbath Afternoon" a masterpiece of immeasurable value.

Final Appraisal Value ($)

45000 US$

Appraisal Report Conducted by:

Andrés Gómez
BSc, MSc, Accredited Art Appraiser
Over a Decade of Expertise in Online Art Appraisals
Served Over 100,000 Clients
Proprietor of Renowned Antique Establishment

Explore my extensive portfolio of past appraisals here:

This appraisal in a nutshell

- Artist's Name: Moritz Daniel Oppenheim - Artist's Date of Birth and Death: 1800–1882 - Title of Artwork: SABBATH AFTERNOON - Period/Age: c1875 - Color Palette: Warm, earthy palette - Art Style/Period: 19th-century realism - Medium: Grisaille painting - Dimensions: [not provided - cannot be determined from text or image] - Is it Framed?: Yes - Edition Information: [no information provided] - Printer/Publisher: [no information provided] - Composition Description: Jewish family, Sabbath scene, detailed domestic interior - Condition: [not provided - cannot be determined from text or image] - Is it signed?: [cannot be determined from text; image not clear enough at signature area for confirmation] - Provenance Information: [no information provided] - Registration Number: [no information provided] - Additional Notes: [no information provided] - COA?: No, assumes original painting - Possible Meaning of the Composition: Emphasizes cultural and religious identity

Client-Provided Imagery for Appraisal Analysis

main Image signature Image age Image

Appraisal Process and Appraiser Qualification Summary

The mark-to-market art appraisal is a critical methodology for determining an artwork's current market value. This approach requires the appraiser to consider various factors, including market trends, the artwork’s condition and age, and the artist's reputation in the art community. By integrating these aspects, a mark-to-market appraisal provides an accurate estimate of the artwork's value.

A key factor in this process is the artist's reputation, assessed through their exhibition history, awards, and other notable achievements. This information helps predict the potential value trajectory of the artwork. Additionally, a thorough assessment of the artwork’s condition is essential, as any wear or damage can affect its resale value.

Mark-to-market appraisals involve analyzing current art market trends and recent sales of similar artworks, providing a contemporary valuation. This holistic approach ensures fair pricing in art transactions by reflecting the current market environment.

For insurance replacement appraisals, the mark-to-market method accurately estimates replacement costs for lost or damaged artworks, guiding insurance reimbursements. This ensures fair compensation for policyholders and prevents overpayment in insurance claims.

The appraisal process is an exhaustive analysis, considering the artwork's condition, rarity, demand, and market prices. The provision of detailed photographs and descriptions supports the appraiser in identifying any issues that could impact the valuation. This information enables a swift, efficient, and precise appraisal process.

A statement of the appraiser’s liability and any potential conflicts of interest.

Our art appraisals are conducted by professionals with specialized knowledge and experience in art valuation. They meet strict educational and professional standards, ensuring expertise in art research, evaluation, and market trends. Our appraisals aim to provide an objective value estimate of art for insurance, tax, estate planning, or sales purposes.

We prioritize fairness and impartiality in our appraisals. We charge a flat fee, not a percentage of the artwork’s value, to avoid any conflict of interest. Our reports adhere to the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP) set by the Appraisal Foundation. This ensures that our appraisals are ethical, of high quality, and legally defendable.

How to sell this artwork.

To assist you in selling your artwork, we provide a comprehensive guide available here. This guide offers structured steps and best practices for successfully navigating the art market.

This customized ad copy is designed to highlight the unique features and value of your artwork, aiming to attract potential buyers and facilitate a successful sale.

Glossary of terms

Art Appraisal Report Glossary

Glossary of Terms

Grisaille Painting
A painting executed entirely in shades of grey or of another neutral greyish color. It is often used to represent sculpture or as a preliminary sketch for a painting.
An abbreviation that indicates the artwork was created around the year 1875. The letter 'c' stands for 'circa', a Latin word meaning 'around' or 'about'.
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim
A German painter regarded as the first Jewish painter to gain recognition in the modern era. Oppenheim is known for his depictions of Jewish life in the 19th century.
19th-Century Realism
A style of art that emerged in the mid-1800s as a reaction to Romanticism, focusing on depicting everyday subjects and scenarios in a realistic manner without embellishment or interpretation.
Genre Scenes
Scenes or paintings depicting ordinary life, especially domestic situations, everyday events, and the likes, are considered genre scenes.
The Sabbath is a day of religious observance and abstinence from work, kept by Jews from Friday evening to Saturday evening, and by most Christians on Sunday.
Cultural and Religious Identity
Elements within an artwork that express the characteristics relating to the beliefs, social customs, and group affiliations of a particular community or society.
The technique used by painters to apply paint to a surface with a brush, including the texture and quality of the paint application.
Textures and Patterns
Textures refer to the perceived surface quality or feel of the artwork, while patterns refer to the repeated decorative design elements.
Warm, Earthy Palette
A color palette that includes hues such as browns, yellows, reds, and oranges, associated with earth and warmth, creating a cozy and inviting atmosphere in the artwork.
Assumes Original Painting
The presumption made for appraisal purposes that the painting is an original work by the noted artist, rather than a copy or reproduction.
COA (Certificate of Authenticity)
A document verifying the authenticity of an artwork, typically provided by the artist, an expert, or the institution from which it was purchased. The absence of a COA might affect the art's provenance and value.